NGOs are the private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development. In wider usage, the term NGO can be applied to any non-profit organization which is independent from the government. NGOs are typically value-based organizations which depend, in whole or in part, on charitable donations and voluntary service. Although the NGO sector has become increasingly professionalized over the last two decades, principles of altruism and voluntarism remain key defining characteristics.

-The World Bank

An agricultural extension service offers technical advice on agriculture to farmers, and also supplies them with the necessary inputs and services to support their agricultural production. It provides information to farmers and passes to the farmers, new ideas developed by agricultural research stations. Agricultural extension programmes cover a broad area including improved crop varieties, better livestock control, improved water management, and the control of weeds, pests or plant diseases. Where appropriate, agricultural extension may also help to build up local farmers' groups and organizations so that they can benefit from extension programmes. Agricultural extension, therefore, provides the indispensable elements that farmers need to improve their agricultural productivity.

-Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

Theme 1: NGOs in Present Context

(Some conceptual and good quality review papers will be accepted in this theme only)


  • 1. Concept, structure and functions related NGOs/CBOs/FPOs/GROs/VDOs.
  • 2. Policies issues and challenges related to functioning of NGOs in present context.
  • 3. Economics and fund mobilization, financial sustainability for working of NGOs.
  • 4. GO-NGO-Industry- Public relationship, partnership and collaboration opportunities.
  • 5. Cooperatives, Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and other Community Based Organizations into extension activities.
Theme 2: NGOs in Agriculture and allied sectors


  • 1. Agriculture & Horticulture: NGOs in Agriculture education, training and management of commercial Agri Horticulture, NGOs in ICT and digital information dissemination, organic farming, advanced farming practices, sericulture, apiculture, mushroom farming, farm mechanization, input management, insect-pest management, procurement, storage and post harvest management, grading-sorting, packaging, standardization, food safety, business promotion, advanced marketing strategies and promotion of FPOs.

  • 2. Animal Husbandry and Fishery: NGOs in milk, meat, egg and fish production, poultry and poultry products, rearing and caring of farm animals, fresh water and marine fisheries, training of rural youth and women for commercial production and their preservation, advanced production strategies.
  • 3. Food processing and agro-based small scale industries-food processing, bio-fortification, super foods and value chain management.
Theme 3: New Dimensions of NGO involvement


  • 1. Doubling farmer’s income, public-private-industry partnership opportunities and challenges.
  • 2. Promotion of crop insurance and risk management.
  • 3. Social awareness and policy advocacy for farmers.
  • 4. Climate change, biodiversity, water and disaster management.
  • 5. Entrepreneurship & employment generation
Theme 4: NGOs in Basic Rural Development issues


  • 1. Rural infrastructure: clean and green energy, rural housing, rural electrification and transportation.
  • 2. Rural education and health.
  • 3. Skill development and empowerment of youth and women.
  • 4. Financial & social inclusion.
  • 5. Management of COVID 19 pandemic
  • 6. Rural tranformation through digital innovations.